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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 46-50

Noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure due to community-acquired pneumonia: A concise review and update


1 Respiratory Diseases Unit, Hospital of Sestri Levante, Italy
2 Department of Pneumology, Institute Clinic del Tórax, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
3 Department of Health Science, University of Milan Bicocca, Clinica Pneumologica, AO San Gerardo, Monza, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Antonello Nicolini
Respiratory Diseases Unit, Via Terzi 43, 16049 Sestri Levante
Italy
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2225-6482.159224

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Strong evidence supports the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure (ARF) to prevent endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and immunocompromised patients. However, weaker evidence supports NIV used in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ARF due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in immunocompetent patients owing to high rates of treatment failure. In all patients, NIV should be applied under close monitoring for signs of treatment failure and, in such case, ETI should be promptly available. A trained team, at an appropriate location, with careful patient selection and optimal choice of devices can optimize NIV outcome. In this short review we examine past and more recent literature regarding the use of NIV in ARF due to CAP, discussing the application of both continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and pressure support ventilation (PSV).


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