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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 23-31

Cardiovascular complications in patients with community-acquired pneumonia


Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Department of Internal Medicine, Respiratory Unit and Regional Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Marta Di Pasquale
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan; Department of Internal Medicine, Respiratory Unit and Regional Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan
Italy
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/cai.cai_7_17

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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most frequent infectious disease, responsible for a great morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is known that poor outcome in CAP patients is not only directly related to pneumonia but also to comorbidities both during hospitalization and long term after discharge. Evidences show a high correlation between acute respiratory infections and increased risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs), such as acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, and stroke. The excessive systemic inflammatory response is responsible for hypoperfusion and activation of cytokines causing endothelial dysfunction, pro-coagulant effects, and atheroma instability. An established diagnostic tool to identify high-risk patients is not yet available, but cardiovascular biomarkers seem to be more effective than inflammatory molecules. Early identification of patients at higher risk for CVEs is mandatory to treat them effectively with prophylaxis medications, to establish adequate clinical surveillance and prevention with vaccinations. The present article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, outcomes, and prevention of CVEs in patients hospitalized for CAP.


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