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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2019
Volume 6 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 9-16

Online since Tuesday, June 16, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Pathogen analysis of bacterial pneumonia secondary to influenza p. 9
Fei Wang, Bei He
DOI:10.4103/cai.cai_4_20  
In human history, there have been several times of influenza raging, which have caused tens of millions of deaths and brought serious social and economic burdens. Although with the development of science, the emergence of vaccines has significantly reduced the incidence and mortality of influenza, due to the high variability of viruses, there is still a lack of effective treatment. More and more studies have found that bacterial pneumonia secondary to influenza was an important cause of the progression to critical illness or even death. Hence, diagnosis and treatment timely of secondary bacterial pneumonia are valuable. Therefore, we discuss the pathogens of bacterial pneumonia secondary to influenza, associated morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Hopefully, it can provide some valuable references for clinical practice. Since some clinical studies have not separated pneumonia from lower respiratory tract infections, we will discuss these two situations together.
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CASE REPORT Top

A rare case report of idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia in an Indian male with nasal Rhizopus fungal polyp with drug-induced acute kidney injury p. 13
Rajesh Kumar, Yasir S Rizvi, Chandan Kumar, Pal Satyajit Singh Athwal
DOI:10.4103/cai.cai_3_19  
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare entity of immune deficit of CD4+ T cells (below 300/mm3) which was first defined in 1992, unrelated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) syndrome without predefined clinical presentation and natural history. The etiology, pathogenesis, and management of ICL remains poorly understood and inadequately defined. The clinical presentation can range from serious opportunistic infections to incidentally diagnosed asymptomatic individuals. Cryptococcal and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy are the most significant presenting infections, although the spectrum of opportunistic diseases can be similar to that in patients with lymphopenia and HIV infection. The prognosis is influenced by the accompanying opportunistic infections and response to the treatment. This rare disease invites uncountable opportunistic infections sometimes leading to lethal outcome. We report a case of ICL in an immunocompetent 18-year-old male with a history of intermittent epistaxis, fungal nasal polyp diagnosed to have Rhizopus with drug-induced acute kidney injury during the course of treatment, a rarest diagnosis as underlying main disease entity. To the best of our knowledge, ICL presenting with opportunistic infection of Rhizopus is the first case to be reported here from a tertiary care center of India, a developing country where a major population lives with poor hygiene and low socioeconomic status.
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