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   2015| October-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 24, 2015

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Community-acquired pneumonia due to gram-negative bacteria
Alejandra Grosso, Angela Famiglietti, Carlos M Luna
October-December 2015, 2(4):117-122
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent infectious disease that can be usually treated in an ambulatory setting. A small percentage of these cases require hospitalization and yet it is the leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death in some countries. A number of these infections is caused by gram-negative bacteria (GNB), which have repeatedly been found to bear an adverse prognostic potential. Its incidence is variable (0-9%) and some species carry a special pathogenicity. Enterobacteriaceae in these studies were more commonly isolated than P. aeruginosa while Acinetobacter spp. and B. cepacia were only occasionally described. The present review has the aim to update the current knowledge about the etiology, classifi cation, antimicrobial resistance, diagnosis, and therapy in CAP due to GNB.
  7,900 1,899 2
Interpretation of expert recommendation on diagnosis and treatment of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury
Feng Li, Shuihua Lu
October-December 2015, 2(4):113-116
  2,633 4,244 -
Notified or missed cases? An assessment of successful linkage for referred tuberculosis patients in South India
Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Anil Jacob Purty, Zile Singh
October-December 2015, 2(4):137-141
Background and Objectives: Although tuberculosis (TB) is a notifi able disease in India, most of the cases of TB are either not recorded or reported. Among diagnosed cases, for improving reporting, proper feedback on referral outcome needs to be ensured to all health care providers who refer cases to the public health system. Materials and Methods: All the received feedbacks for TB patients referred for treatment from July 2013 to December 2013 were analyzed. Feedback reports including referral date, the age and sex of patients, type of disease, and date of treatment initiation were examined. Results: Of the total 1,259 referred TB patients during the study period, feedback was received for 54% of them. Only 42.3% (n = 532) of the referred patients were successfully linked at the treatment facility. Seven (0.6%) referred patients died before the initiation of treatment while 3.7% migrated, 2.4% gave the wrong address, 1.0% started private treatment, and 0.6% were nontraceable; in 3.2% cases only was the TB number given. Feedback was signifi cantly associated with sex, age group, type of treatment, disease type, and place of residence. Conclusion: The feedback received for referred patients was poor and for improving the care of TB patients, there is a need to strengthen the feedback mechanism in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) for referred patients.
  4,728 364 -
Investigation of jaundice outbreak in a rural area of Odisha, India: Lessons learned and the way forward
Sourabh Paul, Preetam B Mahajan, Vikas Bhatia, Jyoti Ranjan Sahoo, Dillip Kumar Hembram
October-December 2015, 2(4):131-136
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis, a condition with liver inflammation, mostly follows hepatitis virus infection of different types A, B, C, D, and E. Each year, numerous outbreaks of hepatitis virus are being reported from around the country, more so from the “Empowered Action Group (EAG) States.” The present outbreak investigation was performed in Odisha, India to study the epidemiology, explore the reasons behind it, and suggest preventive measures for the future. Materials and Methods: A team consisting of public health doctors from All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India investigated the hepatitis E outbreak as per standard guidelines in one of the villages of Tangi block in the state of Odisha, using a questionnaire between January 1, 2015 and January 15, 2015. The data were entered and analyzed in Microsoft Excel 2007. Time, place, and person analysis were performed for all case patients. Result: Hepatitis E outbreak occurred between November 16, 2014 and January 1, 2015, affecting 22 individuals. The attack rate was 44/1,000 in the population and young males were mostly infected. Spot map of the outbreak probably points toward point source epidemic. Most of the infected cases had visited allopathic doctors as well as traditional healers. Less than 50% people had some knowledge about the prevention and control of hepatitis virus infection. Open defecation was highly prevalent in the village. The well was the commonest source of drinking water and the condition of wells was non-sanitary. Less than 2% started hand-washing after the end of the outbreak in the community. Conclusion: Focus of outbreak investigation should not restrict only to immediate control but should rather lead to intervention by the health system in the area for construction of community toilets, improved drinking water facilities, and sustained information, education, and communication (IEC) activities to promote personal hygiene and water safety behavior in the community.
  3,950 582 -
Drug-resistant pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia
Ane Uranga, Marcos I Restrepo, James D Chalmers, Francesco Blasi, Stefano Aliberti
October-December 2015, 2(4):123-130
An increasing prevalence of pneumonia caused by drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) has been identifi ed. The 2005 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines proposed the health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) model in order to identify an increased risk of DRPs in patients coming from the community. These patients are known to have a worse prognosis, mostly due to poor functional status and treatment restrictions. New useful scores have been developed to help physicians in predicting DRPs. This manuscript is a review of currently published literature concerning the impact of CAP caused by DRPs and the different predictive models available.
  3,224 743 3
Mycotic keratitis due to Neoscytalidium dimidiatum: A rare case
Uma Tendolkar, Ruchi A Tayal, Sujata M Baveja, Chaya Shinde
October-December 2015, 2(4):142-144
Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is a plant pathogen capable of causing infection in humans. The infections are generally indolent and found in the nails and skin. Corneal infection due to this fungus is rare. A case of keratitis caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum in an adult male resulting from trauma to the eye is reported.
  2,729 260 1
Subcutaneous and intramuscular cysticercosis
Pablo Segovia-Alonso, Svetlana Zhilina
October-December 2015, 2(4):145-147
Cysticercosis is a preventable parasitic infection caused by the cestode (tapeworm) Taenia solium. In several countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, cysticercosis is endemic. In developed countries, cysticercosis is predominantly an imported disease or associated with poor regions and deprived sanitary resources. We present a case of a 94-year-old Spanish woman who was admitted to the emergency room due to a right leg trauma, edema, and superfi cial venous dilation of the same extremity. The patient came from a rural and remote area. With the suspected diagnosis of venous thromboembolism, x-ray and lower limb venous ultrasonography were performed, confi rming the presumptive diagnosis. As a casual fi nding, we discovered multiples “cigar-shaped” soft-tissue calcifications in both the legs and chest x-ray. Those fi ndings were compatible with muscular cysticercosis. The patient neither showed any symptom related to this pathology and nor were there neurological warning signs. Due to the age, basal conditions, and the family's request, no further studies or treatments were performed.
  2,511 178 -
Nail discoloration in a child with brucellosis
Soner Sertan Kara, Nurhan Doner Aktas
October-December 2015, 2(4):148-149
Brucellosis is a frequent zoonotic disease. During the course of brucellosis treatment, antibiotics can result in side effects. Nail discoloration due to doxycycline is a rare, benign, and self-limited presentation. It is important to recognize it in patients on antibiotic therapy in order to prevent overdiagnosis and unnecessary laboratory tests. Here, a case of an 11-year-old boy with nail discoloration during brucellosis treatment was presented.
  2,059 160 -