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   2017| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 29, 2017

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A questionnaire survey of stigma related to human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among healthy population
Meha Jain, Reema Sinha, Sujita Kumar Kar, Mamta Yadav
2017, 4:6 (29 March 2017)
Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related stigma is present at all levels which act as critical barriers for effectively addressing it. This also influences the treatment uptake and under or nonparticipation in treatment available. In view of this, the present study was aimed to assess the stigma of otherwise healthy individuals of the community toward HIV infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The study was conducted on 100 healthy individuals. Their responses were taken on a self-designed semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The results showed that there is more perceived stigma as compared to enacted stigma. Nearly 46% of the individuals feel that HIV-infected persons should be blamed for their illness and 41% individuals feel that they will feel ashamed if they have HIV. It was also seen that older adults. (between 46 and 55 years) had more stigma as compared to the younger adults (between 16 and 25 years). The educated individuals still have stigma to a certain extent. Most of the individuals would like to tell their partner if they were diagnosed with HIV. Participants were divided into two groups on the basis of their level of education. (<12 years of formal education and >12 years of formal education). Stigma related to HIV/AIDS was compared among these two groups, and there was no significant difference in the level of stigma in these distinctly different educational groups. Conclusion: There is still stigma present to a certain extent in the society in the educated and urban individuals. Level of stigma may not be significantly different in people with educational difference. Stigma needs to be addressed for prevention and better management of HIV/AIDS.
  6,575 659 -
Management of community-acquired urinary tract infection in a tertiary care setting: A prospective study
M Madhu Bashini, S Jeevitha, G Balajee, Vijaya Srinivasan
2017, 4:1 (29 March 2017)
Background and Objectives: Carbapenems and beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitors are empirical drugs of choice in the treatment of urinary tract infection. (UTI); however, de-escalation of therapy is necessary to ensure compliance. Objectives: The objective is to study the impact of antibiotic susceptibility report on the management of community-acquired UTI. Materials and Methods: Patients were classified prospectively as uncomplicated UTI (UC-UTI) and complicated UTI (C-UTI), and symptoms, microbiology, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and treatment modification following culture report were analyzed. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence in patients was compared among naive and those who received empirical treatment before presentation. Patients with a history of recurrent UTI were given prophylaxis and all were followed up for 1 month. SPSS version 20 package was used for statistical analysis. Results: Nearly 75% of the study population had C-UTI. Around 70% of C-UTI and 50% of UC-UTI had ESBL-producing Gram-negative enterobacteriace. In UC-UTI, failed empirical treatment before presentation at our center was significantly associated with positive ESBL producer status. Sensitivity to amikacin and carbapenems was over. 90%; nitrofurantoin and piperacillin-tazobactam followed at around 70%. Following culture report, a significant number of C-UTI were de-escalated to oral regimens. Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of ESBL-producing pathogens in community.acquired UTI, once systemic signs of sepsis are controlled, de-escalation is possible in the majority of patients.
  3,696 383 -
Effects of PM2.5 on zebrafish embryonic development
Jie Sheng, Jianlin Cui, Peng Chen
2017, 4:12 (29 March 2017)
Background and Objectives: Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) has been recognized as an important factor which may cause human respiratory tract related cancer and affect the growth of embryos. In this experiment, the toxicity of PM2.5 on zebrafish's embryos was explored. Methods: Zebrafish animal models were used in the experiment. The zebrafish embryos were exposed to PM2.5 solution of different concentrations, and the aggregation rate, the hatching rate and the malformation rate as the changes in the concentration of PM2.5 were observed. Result: The results showed that when the concentration of PM2.5 was 0-.250 μg/L, it had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the embryo aggregation rate, the hatching rate or the malformation rate. When the concentration of PM2.5 was 500-.2500 μg/L, it had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the embryo aggregation rate, the hatching rate and the malformation rate, and PM2.5 concentration was positively correlated with the embryo aggregation rate, but negatively correlated with the embryo hatching rate. Conclusion: The experiment shows PM2.5 has clear toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, which may provide a basis for further research on PM2.5 pathogenesis.
  2,412 270 -
Disseminated fatal mucormycosis in a relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemic child
Latha M Sneha, Rekha Ravikumar, Julius Xavier Scott, Rajendiran Swaminathan
2017, 4:17 (29 March 2017)
Despite the recent advances in the pharmacotherapeutics of pediatric cancer, opportunistic invasive fungal infections still cause a significant mortality and morbidity in these immunocompromised population, being attributed to the continuous marrow suppression and aggressive chemotherapy. Mucormycosis is the third leading invasive fungal infection after candidiasis and aspergillosis. The elusive presentation and the pleiotropic clinical features of this rare, yet rapidly progressive and frequently fatal infection often cause diagnostic delays, thereby resulting in poor outcomes. A physician's early suspicion and preemptive treatment remains the important key element in the early identification, irrespective of the technological advancements. We report a case of disseminated mucormycosis in a child with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who eventually succumbed to death despite timely intervention and appropriate treatment due to aggressive nature of the invasive fungal infection.
  2,307 208 -
Progress made in Mali and South Sudan toward eradication of dracunculiasis: World Health Organization
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
2017, 4:20 (29 March 2017)
  1,693 175 -